Article summary civilization the west

Major civilizations according to Huntington[ edit ] The clash of civilizations according to Huntingtonas presented in the book. Whether Latin America and the former member states of the Soviet Union are included, or are instead their own separate civilizations, will be an important future consideration for those regions, according to Huntington. The traditional Western viewpoint identified Western Civilization with the Western Christian Catholic - Protestant countries and culture. Countries with a non-Orthodox majority are usually excluded e.

Article summary civilization the west

Discover more of our picks. The political economist Benjamin Friedman once compared modern Western society to a stable Article summary civilization the west whose wheels are kept spinning by economic growth.

Article summary civilization the west

Should that forward-propelling motion slow or cease, the pillars that define our society — democracy, individual liberties, social tolerance and more — would begin to teeter. Our world would become an increasingly ugly place, one defined by a scramble over limited resources and a rejection of anyone outside of our immediate group.

Such collapses have occurred many times in human history, and no civilisation, no matter how seemingly great, is immune to the vulnerabilities that may lead a society to its end.

Follow BBC Future

Regardless of how well things are going in the present moment, the situation can always change. What are they, and which, if any, have already begun to surface? It should come as no surprise that humanity is currently on an unsustainable and uncertain path — but just how close are we to reaching the point of no return?

View image of Credit: Safa Motesharrei, a systems scientist at the University of Maryland, uses computer models to gain a deeper understanding of the mechanisms that can lead to local or global sustainability or collapse. According to findings that Motesharrei and his colleagues published inthere are two factors that matter: The ecological category is the more widely understood and recognised path to potential doom, especially in terms of depletion of natural resources such as groundwater, soil, fisheries and forests — all of which could be worsened by climate change.

Disaster comes when elites push society toward instability and eventual collapse by hoarding huge quantities of wealth and resources That economic stratification may lead to collapse on its own, on the other hand, came as more of a surprise to Motesharrei and his colleagues.

Under this scenario, elites push society toward instability and eventual collapse by hoarding huge quantities of wealth and resources, and leaving little or none for commoners who vastly outnumber them yet support them with labour.

Eventually, the working population crashes because the portion of wealth allocated to them is not enough, followed by collapse of the elites due to the absence of labour.

The inequalities we see today both within and between countries already point to such disparities. If the carrying capacity is overshot by too much, collapse becomes inevitable. That fate is avoidable, however.

Getty Images Unfortunately, some experts believe such tough decisions exceed our political and psychological capabilities.

Indeed, some nations are already serving as canaries in the coal mine for the issues that may eventually pull apart more affluent ones. Syriafor example, enjoyed exceptionally high fertility rates for a time, which fueled rapid population growth. A severe drought in the late s, likely made worse by human-induced climate change, combined with groundwater shortages to cripple agricultural production.

That crisis left large numbers of people — especially young men — unemployed, discontent and desperate. Many flooded into urban centres, overwhelming limited resources and services there. Pre-existing ethnic tensions increased, creating fertile grounds for violence and conflict.

On top of that, poor governance — including neoliberal policies that eliminated water subsidies in the middle of the drought — tipped the country into civil war in and sent it careening toward collapse.

Homer-Dixon calls these combined forces tectonic stresses for the way in which they quietly build up and then abruptly erupt, overloading any stabilising mechanisms that otherwise keep a society in check. Take, for example, the rise and fall of the Roman Empire.

By the end of the BC the Romans had spread across the Mediterranean, to the places most easily accessed by sea. They should have stopped there, but things were going well and they felt empowered to expand to new frontiers by land. While transportation by sea was economical, however, transportation across land was slow and expensive.

All the while, they were overextending themselves and running up costs. The Empire managed to remain stable in the ensuing centuries, but repercussions for spreading themselves too thin caught up with them in the 3rd Century, which was plagued by civil war and invasions.

The Empire tried to maintain its core lands, even as the army ate up its budget and inflation climbed ever higher as the government debased its silver currency to try to cover its mounting expenses.

While some scholars cite the beginning of collapse as the yearwhen the invading Visigoths sacked the capital, that dramatic event was made possible by a downward spiral spanning more than a century. As stated in the laws of thermodynamics, it takes energy to maintain any system in a complex, ordered state — and human society is no exception.

Article summary civilization the west

By the 3rd Century, Rome was increasingly adding new things — an army double the size, a cavalry, subdivided provinces that each needed their own bureaucracies, courts and defences — just to maintain its status quo and keep from sliding backwards.

Eventually, it could no longer afford to prop up those heightened complexities.Sep 12,  · The philosophical backdrop to Huntington's "The Clash of Civilizations" is the Hegel inspired thought (like Fukuyama's "End of History") that the fall of the Berlin Wall marks the end of human conflict with the eventual victory of Western Liberalism, Huntington opposes this by suggesting that conflicts are only about to take on a Author: אני.

Some possible precipitating factors are already in place. How the West reacts to them will determine the world’s future. The elevator pitch for Niall Ferguson‘s “Civilization: The West and the Rest” is simple: Western civilization has risen to dominate world affairs over the last five hundred years, a record unmatched in world history and at odds with its population and geography relative to other countries and civilizations, due to six “killer apps” that have provided an .

Civilization, with its "six killer apps", is the latest in that older, grander, holey-er tradition. It may also be the last, if Ferguson's warnings about the sudden end of .

 Strategy Management ZCZB Article Summary Prepared for: Prof. Datuk Dr. John Xavier Prepared by: Poon Soon Cheong (ZP) Noor Azlina Binti Ishak (ZP) Article summary The Secrets to Successful Strategy Execution When a company finds itself unable to execute strategy, all too often the first reaction is to redraw the .

War Before Civilization: the Myth of the Peaceful Savage (Oxford University Press, ) is a book by Lawrence H. Keeley, a professor of archaeology at the University of Illinois at Chicago who specializes in prehistoric vetconnexx.com book deals with warfare conducted throughout human history by societies with little vetconnexx.com the book, Keeley aims to stop the apparent trend in seeing.

Western Civilization - Spring ULT #15 - Article Summary