Supplemental material has been added to increase coverage of minor cities, facts have been updated, and some material has been condensed. It embraces a varied topography and has every type of climate except tropical.
Large majorities say they belong to one of these faiths, and, in sharp contrast with Europe and the United States, very few people are religiously unaffiliated. Despite the dominance of Christianity and Islam, traditional African religious beliefs and practices have not disappeared.
Rather, they coexist with Islam and Christianity. Large numbers of Africans actively participate in Christianity or Islam yet also believe in witchcraft, evil spirits, sacrifices to ancestors, traditional religious healers, reincarnation and other elements of traditional African religions.
Many Christians and Muslims in sub-Saharan Africa describe members of the other faith as tolerant and honest. In most countries, relatively few see evidence of widespread anti-Muslim or anti-Christian hostility, and on the whole they give their governments high marks for treating both religious groups fairly.
Muslims are significantly more positive in their assessment of Christians than Christians are in their assessment of Muslims. There are few significant gaps, however, in the degree of support among Christians and Muslims for democracy. Regardless of their faith, most sub-Saharan Africans say they favor democracy and think it is a good thing that people from other religions are able to practice their faith freely.
At the same time, there is substantial backing among Muslims and Christians alike for government based on either the Bible or sharia law, and considerable support among Muslims for the imposition of severe punishments such as stoning people who commit adultery.
For additional details, see the survey methodology PDF.
The countries were selected to span this vast geographical region and to reflect different colonial histories, linguistic backgrounds and religious compositions. In total, the countries surveyed contain three-quarters of the total population of sub-Saharan Africa. Other Findings In addition, the nation survey finds: Africans generally rank unemployment, crime and corruption as bigger problems than religious conflict.
However, substantial numbers of people including nearly six-in-ten Nigerians and Rwandans say religious conflict is a very big problem in their country.
The degree of concern about religious conflict varies from country to country but tracks closely with the degree of concern about ethnic conflict in many countries, suggesting that they are often related.
Many Africans are concerned about religious extremism, including within their own faith. Indeed, many Muslims say they are more concerned about Muslim extremism than about Christian extremism, and Christians in four countries say they are more concerned about Christian extremism than about Muslim extremism.
Neither Christianity nor Islam is growing significantly in sub-Saharan Africa at the expense of the other; there is virtually no net change in either direction through religious switching. In most countries, at least half of Muslims say that women should not have the right to decide whether to wear a veil, saying instead that the decision should be up to society as a whole.
Circumcision of girls female genital cutting is highest in the predominantly Muslim countries of Mali and Djibouti but is more common among Christians than among Muslims in Uganda.Political, economic, cultural and other factors are all of vital importance.
This short course aims to explore these issues in the light of current research and with reference to recent developments in the global economy.
Political corruption is a manipulation of policies, institutions and rules of procedure in the allocation of resources and financing by political decision makers, who abuse their position to sustain their power, status and wealth.
It reflects a combination of important economic reforms that led to robust economic growth in most of the developing world and the concerted efforts of the international community to support countries in achieving the Millennium Development Goals, agreed in Legal Corruption Daniel Kaufmann1 and Pedro C.
Vicente2 Second Draft, October, to growth (e.g. Mauro, , Kaufmann and Kraay, ), with dramatic consequences in the developing world. A Political Economy Model of Legal and Illegal Corruption Overview and Relation to Literature.
on the economic, political, and social performance of countries.2 The initial focus of this research dealt with the summary issue of economic growth. Mauro (), relying on data for as many as. Natural resource revenues have also been linked to slow economic growth rates, inequality, and poverty.
One culprit may be the so-called "Dutch disease," whereby resource revenues raise a country.