Each one interweaved with the other. Many even blame the initiation of Christianity in AD by Constantine the Great as the definitive cause while others blame it on increases in unemployment, inflation, military expenditure and slave labour while others blame it on the ethical issues such the decline in morals, the lack of discipline of the armies and the political corruption within the Empire.
Historiography of the fall of the Western Roman Empire Sincewhen Edward Gibbon Did roman empire fall essay the first volume of his The History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman EmpireDecline and Fall has been the theme around which much of the history of the Roman Empire has been structured.
The loss of centralized political control over the West, and the lessened power Did roman empire fall essay the East, are universally agreed, but the theme of decline has been taken to cover a much wider time span than the hundred years from For Cassius Diothe accession of the emperor Commodus in CE marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron".
Toynbee and James Burke argue that the entire Imperial era was one of steady decay of institutions founded in republican times. As one convenient marker for the end, has been used since Gibbon, but other markers include the Crisis of the Third Centurythe Crossing of the Rhine in orthe sack of Rome inthe death of Julius Nepos inall the way to the Fall of New Rome in The story of its ruin is simple and obvious; and, instead of inquiring why the Roman empire was destroyed, we should rather be surprised that it had subsisted so long.
The victorious legions, who, in distant wars, acquired the vices of strangers and mercenaries, first oppressed the freedom of the republic, and afterwards violated the majesty of the purple.
The emperors, anxious for their personal safety and the public peace, were reduced to the base expedient of corrupting the discipline which rendered them alike formidable to their sovereign and to the enemy; the vigour of the military government was relaxed, and finally dissolved, by the partial institutions of Constantine; and the Roman world was overwhelmed by a deluge of Barbarians.
Comparison has also been made with China after the end of the Han dynastywhich re-established unity under the Sui dynasty while the Mediterranean world remained politically disunited.
Alternative descriptions and labels[ edit ] Main article: Late Antiquity From at least the time of Henri Pirenne scholars have described a continuity of Roman culture and political legitimacy long after He challenged the notion that Germanic barbarians had caused the Western Roman Empire to end, and he refused to equate the end of the Western Roman Empire with the end of the office of emperor in Italy.
He pointed out the essential continuity of the economy of the Roman Mediterranean even after the barbarian invasions, and suggested that only the Muslim conquests represented a decisive break with antiquity.
The more recent formulation of a historical period characterized as " Late Antiquity " emphasizes the transformations of ancient to medieval worlds within a cultural continuity. The Empire had large numbers of trained, supplied, and disciplined soldiers, as well as a comprehensive civil administration based in thriving cities with effective control over public finances.
Among its literate elite it had ideological legitimacy as the only worthwhile form of civilization and a cultural unity based on comprehensive familiarity with Greek and Roman literature and rhetoric.
The cursus honoruma standardized series of military and civil posts organised for ambitious aristocratic men, ensured that powerful noblemen became familiar with military and civil command and administration. At a lower level within the army, connecting the aristocrats at the top with the private soldiers, a large number of centurions were well-rewarded, literate, and responsible for training, discipline, administration, and leadership in battle.
Under a series of emperors who each adopted a mature and capable successorthe Empire did not require civil wars to regulate the imperial succession. Requests could be submitted directly to the better emperors, and the answers had the force of law, putting the imperial power directly in touch with even humble subjects.
Heavy mortality in — from the Antonine Plague seriously impaired attempts to repel Germanic invaders, but the legions generally held or at least speedily re-instated the borders of the Empire. Crisis of the Third Century The Empire suffered multiple serious crises during the third century. The rising Sassanid Empire inflicted three crushing defeats on Roman field armies and remained a potent threat for centuries.
Rome abandoned the province of Dacia on the north of the Danubeand for a short period the Empire split into a Gallic Empire in the West —a Palmyrene Empire in the East —and a central Roman rump state. Under Gallienus Emperor from to the senatorial aristocracy ceased joining the ranks of the senior military commanders, its typical members lacking interest in military service and showing incompetence at command.
Diocletian tried to solve this problem by re-establishing an adoptive succession with a senior Augustus and junior Caesar emperor in each half of the Empire, but this system of tetrarchy broke down within one generation; the hereditary principle re-established itself with generally unfortunate results, and thereafter civil war became again the main method of establishing new imperial regimes.
Although Constantine the Great in office to again re-united the Empire, towards the end of the fourth century the need for division was generally accepted. From then on, the Empire existed in constant tension between the need for two emperors and their mutual mistrust.
Receptio of barbarians became widely practiced: In this way many groups provided unfree workers coloni for Roman landowners, and recruits laeti for the Roman army. Sometimes their leaders became officers. Normally the Romans managed the process carefully, with sufficient military force on hand to ensure compliance, and cultural assimilation followed over the next generation or two.
Under Diocletian, the flow of direct requests to the emperor rapidly reduced and soon ceased altogether. No other form of direct access replaced them, and the emperor received only information filtered through his courtiers.
One scholar identifies a great increase in the purchasing power of gold, two and a half fold from to the later fourth century, which may be an index of growing economic inequality between a gold-rich elite and a cash-poor peasantry. Abuse of power, frontier warfare, and rise of Christianity[ edit ] Further information: History of late ancient Christianity In Constantine I declared official toleration of Christianityfollowed over the ensuing decades by establishment of Christian orthodoxy and by official and private action against pagans and non-orthodox Christians.
His successors generally continued this process, and Christianity became the religion of any ambitious civil official. Under Constantine the cities lost their revenue from local taxes, and under Constantius II r.
Byafter decades of pirate attacks, virtually all villas in Armorica were deserted, and local use of money ceased about Julian with the beard appropriate to a Neoplatonic philosopher.
All Christian sects were officially tolerated by Julian, persecution of heretics was forbidden, and non-Christian religions were encouraged. Some Christians continued to destroy temples, disrupt rituals, and break sacred images, seeking martyrdom and at times achieving it at the hands of non-Christian mobs or secular authorities; some pagans attacked the Christians who had previously been involved with the destruction of temples.
He launched an expensive campaign against the Persians,  which ended in defeat and his own death. He succeeded in marching to the Sassanid capital of Ctesiphon, but lacked adequate supplies for an assault.Fall of the Roman Empire The Golden Age in Rome, from about 96 to CE, was a time of unparalleled prosperity for the Romans.
It was a period of five good emperors, who brought peace and wealth to the Romans. The Fall of the Roman Empire Essay Alex Verreault The Rise And Fall Of The Roman Empire History Essay.
Print Reference this. Disclaimer: The decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fourth and fifth. The Rise of the Roman Empire can be contributed to many factors. Those factors would include strength in the military, society, leadership, religious, and architectural aspects of.
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Christian beliefs on abortion essay thesis synthesis of dibenzalacetone essay. The Roman Empire was one of the most powerful empires in the history of mankind.
In fact, it may even be considered the most powerful empire to have ever existed. However, the mighty empire of Rome has fallen. There are many events which many scholars and historians believe have lead to the fall of 3/5(9).
The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, The First Millennium AD in Europe and the Mediterranean: an archaeological essay.
Cambridge University Press The phrase "the Fall of Rome" suggests some cataclysmic event ended the Roman Empire which had stretched from the British Isles to Egypt and Iraq.
But at the end, there was no straining at the gates, no barbarian horde that dispatched the Roman Empire in one fell swoop.
Rather, the Roman Empire fell.