References and Further Reading 1. From the "Mayflower Compact," penned in as the early English settlers arrived in the New World, basic socio-political positions were made explicit and fundamental to newly established communities. Speaking of forming a covenant to "combine ourselves into a civil Body Politic," those arriving on the Mayflower immediately identified a close and ineliminable connection between individuals and their community. This sentiment was echoed in founding documents of other colonies, such as the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut and the Massachusetts Body of Liberties
Strongly influenced by the rise of modern science and by the aftermath of the long religious conflict that followed the Reformation, the thinkers of the Enlightenment called philosophes in France were committed to secular views based on reason or human understanding only, which they hoped would provide a basis for beneficial changes affecting every area of life and thought.
All of the philosophes saw themselves as continuing the work of the great 17th century pioneers--Francis Bacon, Galileo, Descartes, Leibnitz, Isaac Newton, and John Locke--who had developed fruitful methods of rational and empirical inquiry and had demonstrated the possibility of a world remade by the application of knowledge for human benefit.
The philosophes believed that science could reveal nature as it truly is and show how it could be controlled and manipulated. This belief provided an incentive to extend scientific methods into every field of inquiry, thus laying the groundwork for the development of the modern social sciences.
Voltaire admired the freedom he found in England and fostered the spread of English ideas on the Continent. He and his followers opposed the intolerance of the established Christian churches of their day, as well as the European governments that controlled and suppressed dissenting opinions. For example, the social disease which Pangloss caught from Paquette was traced to a "very learned Franciscan" and later to a Jesuit.
Also, Candide reminisces that his passion for Cunegonde first developed at a Mass. More conservative enlightened thinkers, concerned primarily with efficiency and administrative order, favored the "enlightened despotism" of such monarchs as Emperor Joseph II, Frederick II of Prussia, and Catherine II of Russia.
Enlightened political thought expressed demands for equality and justice and for the legal changes needed to realize these goals.George Berkeley: Anglo-Irish Anglican bishop, philosopher, and scientist best known for his empiricist and idealist philosophy, which holds that reality consists only of minds and their ideas; everything save the spiritual exists only insofar as it is perceived by the senses.
Read more about Berkeley’s philosophy in .
|Personalism | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||The categories and taxonomies used by historians, and their normative allegiances, are not immune from revision, however, and use of the term may diminish as detailed contextual enquiries examine more carefully than hitherto the thought and action of the period. During the last two hundred years the meaning and implications of many familiar terms have changed greatly.|
|Locke and French materialism (eBook, ) [vetconnexx.com]||An overview of the system developed by the German philosopher Hegel The paper discusses his life, influences, dialectical methods, and views on Absolute Idealism, among other things.|
|Term Papers and Essays on Western Philosophy To||It is evident to any one who takes a survey of the objects of human knowledge, that they are either ideas actually imprinted on the senses, or else such as are perceived by attending to the passions and operations of the mind, or lastly ideas formed by help of memory and imagination, either compounding, dividing, or barely representing those originally perceived in the aforesaid ways. By sight I have the ideas of light and colours with their several degrees and variations.|
|American Philosophy | Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy||While awaiting a fellowship vacancy, he made a critical study of timevisionand the hypothesis that there is no material substance. The principal influences upon his thinking were empiricismrepresented by the English philosopher John Lockeand Continental skepticismrepresented by Pierre Bayle.|
In this their fourth conversation the 17th century philosopher, John Locke and the 21st century linguist, Terence Moore, consider a question not fully answered even today: what might count as the key distinction beween man and animals, or in Locke's phrase what In the Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Locke considers two possible linguistic.
The English philosopher John Locke is considered to be the founder of empiricism and the Enlightenment critique of knowledge. German, Italian, Scottish, or Swiss philosophers in the 18th century were democrats, materialists or even atheists; and, Radical Enlightenment: Philosophy and the Making of Modernity, –, Oxford American Philosophy.
The term “American Philosophy,” perhaps surprisingly, has been somewhat vague.
While it has tended to primarily include philosophical work done by Americans within the geographical confines of the United States, this has not been exclusively the case. George Berkeley, Bishop of Cloyne, was one of the great philosophers of the early modern period.
He was a brilliant critic of his predecessors, particularly Descartes, Malebranche, and Locke. Essay, Research Paper: Enlightenment Of 18th Century European History Free European History research papers were donated by our members/visitors and are presented free of charge for informational use only.