Islamism, pragmatic realism and nationalism enjoyed a non-linear relationship; often coalescing, sometimes competing. Continuity in foreign policy is visible after the Pahlavi period; whilst radical Shia Islamism became additional policy determinant, it fused with and often enhanced nationalist and pragmatist paradigms, rather than outmoding them.
Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: The following chapter on the problem of self-representation compares the uses of reading and writing in Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Augustine, who alike see these activities not as ends in themselves, but as a means to make a better person.
Here Petrarch is placed in a broad context of writing on the self that extends from Augustine through Descartes. In More, contemplation of an idealized community is not only an ascetic exercise, but articulates a new humanist program of social change.
The last chapter takes up lectio spiritualis, or the use of reading and writing as a contemplative practice, as an unrecognized factor in the formation of European identity. This is a precisely focused, nuanced argument that refines the broad perceptions of Auerbach and Curtius on the Latin Middle Ages, romance philology, and European identity.
Not all the chapters of this study are equally successful B sometimes the argument is not sufficiently developed, or leaves us wishing for clarification. This study of Augustine and meditative reading is a stimulus that provokes productive reflection on many aspects of Western European culture since antiquity.
The Crusades confronted Western Christianity with the renewed problem of dealing with substantial populations of Christian schismatics B such as Greeks, Armenians, Syrians, and other Eastern Christians B along with Muslims, Jews, and pagans.
All of the papers stray from the well-worn discussion of Crusader ideology, and reveal that practical considerations often outweighed theology as the driving force of public policy. He suggests that the texts must be read more critically, since exaggeration often characterized both medieval and modern historians.
Yaacov Lev likewise warns that the ransom and treatment of prisoners during these local conflicts was determined not only by religious considerations but also by strategic and economic motives, sometimes leading to a brutal and inhumane desire for revenge.
The same theme is addressed by James Brodman, who documents the creation of new religious orders along with papal and secular efforts to ransom prisoners by using the rhetoric of Crusader ideology.1 THE ROLE OF IDEOLOGY IN FOREIGN POLICY ATTITUDE FORMATION by Nicholas Fred Martini A thesis submitted in partial .
However, in the contemporary context, what is known as American exceptionalism can be seen in the current policy and ideology, ignoring any difference between the past and present, the reasons and opportunities resulting in symbolic values, â€‹â€‹and the principle of contradiction and controversy.
US $ This volume deals with the neglected subject of the policy towards minority groups, some within Europe itself, others on its geographical periphery, during the Crusader age.
Free Essay: Practical Considerations Outweighed Ideology in Foreign Policy in Relation to Germany from Adolf Hitler was made Chancellor of Germany.
For it is the nature of ideology to preconceive reality." The ideology that worried The Public Interest's editors most was excessive faith in government's capacity to solve entrenched social problems.
Hence, the impact of pragmatism and ideology in Iranian foreign policy is often wrongly bifurcated into separate linear periods; ideology existed before and .