The devastation of nuclear weapons and

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The devastation of nuclear weapons and

Effects of nuclear explosions - Wikipedia

City on fire by Lynn Eden By ignoring the fire damage that would result from a nuclear attack and taking into account blast damage alone, U. For more than 50 years, the U. Government The devastation of nuclear weapons and seriously underestimated damage from nuclear attacks.

The devastation of nuclear weapons and

The earliest schemes to predict damage from atomic bombs, devised in andfocused only on blast damage and ignored damage from fire, which can be far more devastating than blast effects. The failure to include damage from fire in nuclear war plans continues today. Because fire damage has been ignored for the past half-century, high-level U.

As a result, any U. If nuclear weapons were used, the physical, social, and political effects could be far more destructive than anticipated. How can this systematic failure to assess fire damage have persisted for more than half a century?

The most common response is that fire damage from nuclear weapons is inherently less predictable than blast damage. Nuclear fire damage is just as predictable as blast damage.

One bomb, one city Source: The National Security Archives To visualize the destructiveness of a nuclear bomb, imagine a powerful strategic nuclear weapon detonated above the Pentagon, a short distance from the center of Washington, D. Let us say that it is an ordinary, clear day with visibility at 10 miles, and that the weapon's explosive power is kilotons-the approximate yield of most modern strategic nuclear weapons.

This would be far more destructive than the kilotonbomb detonated at Hiroshima or the kiloton bomb detonated at Nagasaki. When a former commander in chief of the U. Strategic Command read my scenario, he wanted to know why I put only one bomb on Washington.

He explained the military logic of planning a nuclear attack on Washington: I would be comfortable saying that there would be several dozens of weapons aimed at D. Today, he said, Washington is in no less danger than during the Cold War.

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The discussion that follows greatly understates the damage that would occur in a concerted nuclear attack, and not only because I describe the effects of a single weapon.

I describe what would happen to humans in the area, but I do not concentrate on injury, the tragedy of lives lost, or the unspeakable loss to the nation of its capital city. But I am concerned with how organizations estimate and underestimate nuclear weapons damage; thus, I focus largely, as do they, on the physical environment and on physical damage to structures.

With this in mind, let us look at some of the consequences of a nuclear weapon detonation, from the first fraction of a second to the utter destruction from blast and fire that would happen within several hours.

This will allow us to understand the magnitude of the damage from both effects, but particularly from fire, which is neither widely understood nor accounted for in damage prediction in U. Unimaginable lethality The detonation of a kiloton nuclear bomb would release an extraordinary amount of energy in an instant-about trillion calories within about a millionth of a second.

More than 95 percent of the energy initially released would be in the form of intense light. This light would be absorbed by the air around the weapon, superheating the air to very high temperatures and creating a ball of intense heat-a fireball. Hiroshima before the bombing Hiroshima after the bombing Because this fireball would be so hot, it would expand rapidly.

Almost all of the air that originally occupied the volume within and around the fireball would be compressed into a thin shell of superheated, glowing, high-pressure gas. This shell of gas would compress the surrounding air, forming a steeply fronted, luminous shockwave of enormous extent and power-the blast wave.

By the time the fireball approached its maximum size, it would be more than a mile in diameter.The US finds it most stabilizing to have a nuclear triad, or three varieties of nuclear weapons available at any time.

Submarines, land-based silos, and bomber planes all hold nuclear missiles. So President Donald Trump wants a mini-nuke. At least that is what Politico’s Bryan Bender reports is under consideration in the government’s ongoing Nuclear Posture Review, which may propose.

For nuclear weapons in the kiloton range, the energy is divided in various forms, roughly as 50% blast, 35% thermal and 15% nuclear radiation. Each one of these forms causes devastation on a scale that is unimaginable. offers information on Earth changes, earthquakes, volcanoes, an EMP, chemtrails or GMO's. Nuclear weapons emit large amounts of thermal radiation as visible, infrared, and ultraviolet light, to which the atmosphere is largely transparent. This is known as "Flash".

The devastation of nuclear weapons and

[12] The chief hazards are burns and eye injuries. The following documentary explores the surprisingly abundant evidence that nuclear weapons are a hoax. Many of the nuclear explosion videos we have all seen and presumed real are shown to be complete fakes using model trees, houses and cars exploding on a set.

Nuclear and Conventional Weapons | Nuclear Darkness & Nuclear Famine