John Wherry Abstract Toxoplasma gondii infection provides a clinically important, and experimentally tractable, system for exploring the delicate balance of interactions between a pathogen and its host, resulting in the long-term survival of both.
Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Date Issued: Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular pathogen capable of chronically infecting nearly all warm-blooded animals, including humans.
The chronic stage is characterized by the presence of semi-dormant cysts in brain and muscle tissues. These cysts are crucial in the success of Toxoplasma as they are orally infectious and allow for the transmission of the parasite between hosts. As the host immune response drives cyst formation, the establishment of this chronic infection relies on the parasite's ability to find a balance between activation of a host immune response and evasion of parasiticidal mechanisms.
This balance is achieved through the modulation of host cell processes by parasite proteins secreted from specialized secretory organelles known as rhoptries and dense granules. Here, we report that Toxoplasma activates the inflammasomes in mice and rats.
The inflammasomes are a set of cytoplasmic pattern recognition receptors PRRs.
Activation of the inflammasomes results in caspase-1 activation and the cleavage and release of the pro-inflammatory cytokines, Interleukin IL -1[beta] and IL IL-1p is an important mediator of local inflammation and neutrophil recruitment.
A form of cell death, termed pyroptosis, can accompany inflammasome activation. The NLRPI inflammasome is activated in infected macrophages from rats that are able to completely clear infection.
Activation of the NLRP1 inflammasome leads to pyroptosis, a programmed form of cell death. Pyroptosis prevents parasite replication within the host cell and likely promotes clearance by nearby immune cells.
Our work has identified Toxoplasma gondii as a novel activator of the rodent inflammasomes and demonstrated host cell death as a mechanism to control parasite replication.
We have also identified three novel parasite proteins required for this activation, providing insight into interactions between parasite and host, which may aid in the treatment of human infection.Toxoplasma gondii (/ ˈ t ɒ k s oʊ p l æ z m ə ˈ ɡ ɒ n d i aɪ /) is an obligate intracellular, parasitic apicomplexan that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals: 1 but felids such as domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite may undergo .
Toxoplasma gondii (T.
gondii) is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals, and can cause a severe disease in immunocompromised individuals.
Protection to T. gondii is largely mediated by CD8 T cells, although CD4 T cells have also been shown to be important in immunity to T.
gondii. Toxoplasmosis is an infection that pregnant females can get from a microscopic parasite. This parasite is called Toxoplasma gondii. The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular eukaryotic pathogen of the phylum Apicomplexa may cause toxoplasmosis in many warm-blooded animals.
Many important human pathogens belong to this group, including the causative agents of malaria (Plasmodium spp.), cryptosporidiosis (Cryptosporidium spp.), and toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondii). We use T. gondii to model features conserved throughout the phylum, such as their reliance on calcium signaling to regulate motility.
vetconnexx.com is a global zoonotic disease and is considered as the most neglected tropical disease in sub-Saharan countries. The exact seroepidemiological distribution and risk factors for the infection of food animals and humans in Ethiopia was less studied although, such studies are important.
Consumption of undercooked or insufficiently cured meat is a major risk factor for human infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Although horsemeat is typically consumed rare or undercooked, information on the risk of T.
gondii from infected horse meat to humans is scarce. Here, we present the results of a study to determine the presence of T.
gondii infection in slaughter horses in Serbia, and to.